Civil War Confederate Amry Out-Post Culpepper, VA.
On July 24, 1863 - Confederate general Robert E. Lee occupies Culpeper County following the failed Gettysburg Campaign. Geographically, it sat midway between and slightly to the west of Richmond and Washington, D.C., and railroads linked it to both national capitals. Document Signed, 10/2/1863 - 8 x 12 mounted, 8 1/4 x 12 1/4 Folio: Confederate Military Docket No. (40) "Special Requistion" for Goods at Culpeper; Steel Pens, Sealing Wax, Lead Pencils, O.B. Envelops, Office Rulers ect. Signed by James K. Robinson, Lieutenant; written in blk ink with a four-fold and a staine with lovely age-toning seen throughout docket. Overall, fine condition.
More than half of that population during the Civil War was African American, including 6,675 slaves. The majority of citizens in this prosperous community—its principal commercial crop being wheat—had wished to avoid war.
Culpeper endorsed secession on May 23, 1861, a month after U.S. president Abraham Lincoln called on the state for volunteers to put down the rebellion. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the men of Culpeper served most prominently in five Confederate regiments: the 7th, 11th, and 13th Virginia Infantry, and the 4th and 6th Virginia Cavalry.
The county suffered its first Union occupation when Union general John Pope's Army of Virginia arrived in July 1862. This led to the first major battle in Culpeper, at Cedar (or Slaughter's) Mountain, in which Confederate troops under Thomas J. “Stonewall" Jackson successfully blocked a Union advance into central Virginia.
Confederate general Robert E. Lee then drove out Pope during the Second Manassas Campaign (1862), and the county remained Lee's favored staging area for the remainder of the war. He selected Culpeper for his winter quarters after the Maryland Campaign and the Battle of Antietam in September 1862, and a portion of his army occupied the county following the Battle of Fredericksburg in December 1862.
Lee launched the Gettysburg Campaign from Culpeper, though not before his cavalry, under J. E. B. Stuart, faced off against Union troopers at Brandy Station in the largest cavalry battle of the war, in June 1863. Lee returned to Culpeper following Gettysburg, and would have wintered there had not the Union Army of the Potomac pushed him out in September. Lee returned the favor a month later by ousting the Union troops, only to be expelled himself in the Battle of Rappahannock Station (1863).
Culpeper remained mostly in Union hands thereafter. The Army of the Potomac wintered there from November 1863 until May 1864, when, under the new Union general-in-chief Ulysses S. Grant, it embarked on the Overland Campaign. The momentum of war then gravitated toward Richmond and Petersburg, and Culpeper saw only occasional Union raiding parties, the largest one sweeping through the community in December 1864.
May 1863 - A portion of Confederate general Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia occupies Culpeper County following the Confederate victory at the Battle of Chancellorsville.
June 9, 1863 - Union cavalry under Alfred Pleasonton cross the Rappahannock River and surprise, even humiliate, J. E. B. Stuart and his famed Confederate horsemen. The Battle of Brandy Station is the largest cavalry engagement of the Civil War, and while Pleasanton's men are beaten back, the battle raises their morale.
July 24, 1863 - Confederate general Robert E. Lee occupies Culpeper County following the failed Gettysburg Campaign.
September 13, 1863 - In the Battle of Culpeper Court House, Union cavalry under Alfred Pleasonton defeat Confederate troopers under J. E. B. Stuart, opening the county to Union control before the Bristoe Station Campaign.
November 1863–May 1864 - Culpeper County is occupied by the Union Army of the Potomac.